I think they should be allowed like questions about porting code on Stack Overflow are: If you dump a paragraph on us and say, "Make this Latin," that's off-topic/bad. If you say, "I'm translating this sentence in this larger body and I can't figure out how this word fits in", "I'm having trouble translating this sentence, is (blah blah) correct", "How is (word) translated in this context", etc., that's at least potentially a good question.
In short, language dumps bad, specific questions good.
To answer the questions at the end of your question:
- No. They're both translation.
- There should be obvious evidence that a serious attempt was made – even just "Here's the words I could define with the Internet, and here's how I think they maybe possibly go together" would count for research.
As an example of (what I consider to be) a good translation question, I posted this. It's garnered a few upvotes and no downvotes, so I think it's safe to assume that everyone agrees; that kind of question is acceptable.